Glossary

Glossary.

Catfishing: A deceptive activity of setting up a fictitious online profile, most often for the purpose of luring another by monetarily trapping them or forging a fraudulent relationship using subtle manipulation.

Sources
https://xnspy.com/blog/catfishing-interesting-facts-statistics.html
https://medium.com/@taariqmutaliph/catfishing-the-danger-of-youth-352229710bd

Chat Rooms: A place where multiple users can communicate electronically. It can be both one-on-one and can also involve a number of people. Chat rooms can also be moderated and/or supervised.

Sources:
https://www.theguardian.com/education/2001/mar/20/itforschools.schools5
https://itstillworks.com/chat-rooms-dangerous-1073.html
https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/chat/problems-with-internet-chat-bored-and-vulnerable-users/

Click bait: Some headlines on the web are eye catching, sensational and misleading. It definitely intrigues readers to click and view the story. Usually the purpose of click baits’ – to generate page views and/or revenues. But leads to viewing inappropriate content and even malware.

Sources
https://edu.gcfglobal.org/en/thenow/what-is-clickbait/1/
https://roundpeg.biz/2018/03/clickbait-tactics-harm-good/

Cyber bullying:  Intentional and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices. It includes sending, posting, or sharing negative, harmful, false, or mean content about someone. It also includes sharing personal or private information about someone else causing embarrassment or humiliation.

Sources
https://firstsiteguide.com/cyberbullying-stats/
https://www.verywellmind.com/cyberbullying-and-depression-1066791
https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/09/27/a-majority-of-teens-have-experienced-some-form-of-cyberbullying/

Cyber stalking: Methods used to repeatedly harass someone using networked technology; intimidating and being invasive of privacy.

Sources:
https://us.norton.com/internetsecurity-how-to-how-to-protect-yourself-from-cyberstalkers.html
https://blog.ipleaders.in/cyber-stalking/

Cyber threats: A possible danger that exploits the vulnerability to breach security and cause harm, either intentionally and/or accidently.

Sources:
https://preyproject.com/blog/en/what-are-cyber-threats-how-they-affect-you-what-to-do-about-them/
https://www.stanfieldit.com/cyber-security-threats/

Diary Use: When their network starts doing everything digitally, then kids start substituting their physical presence with an online persona and apply personality development to the online profile.

Sources:
http://www.jackcentral.org/opinion/social-media-is-not-a-diary/article_008579f3-70f8-53fc-bcf9-8ab7a1fd3dc7.html
https://www.niemanlab.org/2013/05/diaries-the-original-social-media-how-our-obsession-with-documenting-and-sharing-our-own-lives-is-nothing-new/

Doxing: Searching for and the publishing of personal information of an individual. Doxers use the information to attack, threaten and harass them.

Sources:
https://html.com/blog/doxing/
https://www.diggitmagazine.com/articles/doxing-and-online-communities

Disinformation: False information deliberately and covertly spread to mislead and influence public opinion or obscure the truth. The information is intentionally presented by the manipulation of facts to tweak the narrative, i.e., used as a tool of propaganda.  Example, if someone intentionally and strategically sends out information in the form of articles, photos, memes, videos, etc., that they know is untrue its disinformation.

Sources:
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-how-do-our-brains-fall-for-disinformation/
https://web.uri.edu/quadangles/020-the-age-of-disinformation/

Fake News: Meme culture and picture posts, we usually believe what we see, without proper verification. For example, with global news about Coronavirus reaching users, memes and fake news about symptoms have also been widespread.

Sources:
https://theconversation.com/why-media-education-in-schools-needs-to-be-about-much-more-than-fake-news-129156
https://www.summer.harvard.edu/inside-summer/4-tips-spotting-fake-news-story
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/01/majority-americans-were-not-exposed-fake-news-2016-us-election-twitter-study-suggests

FOMO:  Fear of Missing Out – a phenomenon in the digital age and world that describes the feeling of sadness, loss and/or of not being in pace with others, usually peer group in experiencing something that is considered as an “amazing experience” by others. It can lead to anger issues, anxiety and depression.

Sources:
https://www.verywellmind.com/how-to-cope-with-fomo-4174664
https://time.com/4358140/overcome-fomo/
https://trustpulse.com/fomo-statistics/

Gamer Gate: The Gamer Gate controversy (August 2014) which targeted several women in the video game industry. It’s concerned with the ethics in game journalism and with protecting the `gamer” identity. The issue whirls around the issues of sexism in video game culture.

Sources:
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/aug/20/the-guardian-view-on-gamergate-when-hatred-escaped
https://gawker.com/what-is-gamergate-and-why-an-explainer-for-non-geeks-1642909080

Hacking: The act of evading security and breaking into authorized locations, i.e., a network, computer, file, etc., usually with malicious intent.

Sources:
https://www.adweek.com/digital/blaise-grimes-viort-the-social-element-guest-post-defending-against-social-media-hacks/
https://wpdaddy.com/why-social-media-accounts-are-hacked-what-to-do-to-avoid-it-or-recover-your-one/

Happy Slapping: It is a fad that originated in 2005, in the United Kingdom. Here, one or more than one person attacks a victim for the purpose of recording it.

Sources:
https://www.jugendundmedien.ch/themen/cybermobbing-happy-slapping.html
https://www.slideshare.net/asmedia/happy-slapping

Hashtag: It’s a word or phrase which is preceded by the sign “#” It is to categorize information so as to make it searchable and user friendly.

JOMO: The Joy of Missing Out – it’s about disconnecting, opting out and being okay with where you are, like a retreat from the real world.

Sources
https://www.inquirer.com/philly/columnists/elizabeth_wellington/jomo-meaning-fomo-20180822.html
https://qrius.com/jomo-over-fomo-how-to-find-the-joy-of-missing-out/

Like Baiting: The practice of explicitly requesting likes, shares, comments so as to increase engagement on social media, and to boast of having ‘n’ number of likes or followers. For example, ‘One like is equal to one prayer.’

Sources
https://www.writeraccess.com/blog/the-practice-of-like-baiting-and-why-you-should-avoid-it/
http://www.james-nicholson.co.uk/facebook-set-minimise-like-baiting-posts/

Mal-information: When genuine information is shared to cause harm, often by moving information designed to stay private into the public sphere.

Example, if someone sends out a personal picture and/or video to another person without their consent to take revenge and/or cause harm and harass.

Sources
http://www.mikekujawski.ca/2019/09/05/misinformation-vs-disinformation-vs-malinformation/

Misinformation: False information that is inadvertently spread and published regardless of the intent to fabricate facts and/or mislead.

Example, when an individual sees this disinformation, in the form of articles, photos, videos, etc., and believes it, and then shares it, that’s misinformation.

Sources
https://www.impactbnd.com/blog/facebook-outlines-steps-to-fight-misinformation-in-news-feeds
https://www.coe.int/en/web/campaign-free-to-speak-safe-to-learn/dealing-with-propaganda-misinformation-and-fake-news

 Netiquette: An abbreviation that comes from the amalgamation of two words – Network” and “Etiquette.” It marks the guidelines for courteous and responsible communication online. The purpose is to enable us to build and maintain a pleasant, comfortable, inclusive and responsible online environment.

Sources
https://www.rasmussen.edu/student-experience/college-life/netiquette-guidelines-every-online-student-needs-to-know/
https://www.rd.com/culture/social-media-etiquette/
https://pumpic.com/security/netiquette-rules-for-kids/

Pharming: A kind of a cyber attack intended to redirect a website’s traffic to a fake website.

Sources
https://antivirus.comodo.com/blog/comodo-news/what-is-pharming/
https://fraudwatchinternational.com/pharming/what-is-pharming-and-how-to-reduce-your-risk/

Phishing: The attempt to fraudulently acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, or bank/card information, etc. by disguising as authentic electronic communication, usually email or even a phone call. It’s also a method of spreading electronic viruses.

Sources
https://gasparinsurance.com/phishing/
https://in.pcmag.com/feature/127150/how-to-avoid-phishing-scams

Pretexting: The act of masquerading a good pretext to strive to steal victim’s personal information. The scammer builds up the pretext of asking for “bits of information” to verify their identity. The data acquired is used to commit identity theft.

Private: A social media setting that enables and protects content from the public eye. Users have to offer a request to follow private accounts to see their content. Always keep your account safe by using the private mode! It’s a smart option!

Sources
https://www.techcrates.com/how-to-secure-social-media-account/
https://gizmodo.com/how-to-make-your-social-media-accounts-as-private-as-po-1793949395
https://www.sallyahmed.com/private-was-the-norm-for-social-media/

Revenge Porn: Distribution of sexually explicit videos and/or photos of individuals without their permission. It can also be made and leaked by a partner, hence, revenge.

The possession of the explicit content is used by perpetrators to blackmail and harass individuals.

Sources
https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2018/may/07/many-revenge-porn-victims-consider-suicide-why-arent-schools-doing-more-to-stop-it
https://www.womenshealthmag.com/life/a19911633/stop-revenge-porn/
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/what-is-revenge-porn-9580251.html

Sad Fishing: The act of emotionally exaggerating problems to gain sympathy. The other name for it is “cat fishing”. In other words, it’s basically to pretend to go through a hard time (at least pretend more than what’s reality). It usually hurts the younger crowd making them open to bullying. It’s seen as an extension of cyber bullying as it seeks attention and attracts bullies and pedophiles in the loop.

Sources
https://www.parents.com/parenting/better-parenting/teenagers/a-parents-guide-to-sadfishing/
https://www.newindianexpress.com/lifestyle/tech/2020/jan/18/how-social-media-users-fishing-for-sympathy-have-a-bearing-on-mental-health-2090992.html
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/what-is-revenge-porn-9580251.html

Sexting: Sending, receiving, or forwarding sexually explicit messages, photographs through a digital device, of oneself to others. It can be used for further blackmailing and harassment.

Sources
https://theconversation.com/teenage-sexting-were-letting-young-people-down-by-not-talking-about-it-107054
https://theconversation.com/12-ways-to-keep-your-kids-safe-from-sexual-encounters-online-97655
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/what-is-revenge-porn-9580251.html

Sextortion: Another form of revenge porn employing forms of coercion that isn’t physical so as to extort sexual favors from victims. It refers to sexual exploitation through coercion and threatening the release of information/images.

Sources
https://securityledger.com/2019/02/research-finds-sextortion-scams-expand-in-scope-sophistication/
https://www.kaspersky.com/blog/sextortion/12716/
https://money.cnn.com/2016/06/23/technology/sextortion-thorn-study

Shoulder Surfing: A technique used to obtain information like PINs, passwords and other confidential data by literally looking over the victim’s shoulder. The attacker just needs to be close vicinity and keep a keen eye on the victim’s typing pattern and surroundings. Crowded places are open to more such kinds of attacks.

Sources
https://password-managers.bestreviews.net/how-to-protect-yourself-from-shoulder-surfing/

Spam: Then “spam” or “junk” folder in your emails are a gateway to unnecessary and repetitive content so as to clog the inbox. Make sure you don’t respond to spam messages and delete them.

Sources
https://www.talkd.co/2018/09/skip-the-spam/

Spyware: Software which aims at gathers information about a person or organization, without their knowledge, and sends the information to another entity without their consent, through “cookies”.

Sources
https://www.malwarebytes.com/spyware/
https://www.le-vpn.com/what-is-spyware/

Trojan Horse: Trojans leave our computer completely unprotected. They’re a type of malicious code or software that looks legitimate, but makes your computer susceptible to hacking without the hacker being detected.

Sources
https://www.educba.com/what-is-trojan-horse-virus/